Publicações: DAVID MONTENEGRO LAPOLA Ver todos
Notice: Undefined variable: COAUTOR in /var/www/html/cepagri/app/view/sobre-publicacoes.php on line 99
Artigo de Pesquisa | Acesso aberto | 95 A new high‐resolution nationwide aboveground carbon map for Brazil

David Montenegro Lapola

Ano de publicação: 2017

Resumo:
Brazil is home to the largest tracts of tropical vegetation in the world, harbouring high levels of biodiversity and carbon. Several biomass maps have been produced for Brazil, using different approaches and methods, and for different purposes. These maps have been used to estimate historic, recent, and future carbon emissions from land use change (LUC). It can be difficult to determine which map to use for what purpose. The implications of using an unsuitable map can be significant, since the maps have large differences, both in terms of total carbon storage and its spatial distribution. This paper presents comparisons of Brazil's new ‘official’ carbon map; that is, the map used in the third national communication to the UNFCCC in 2016, with the former official map, and four carbon maps from the scientific literature. General strengths and weaknesses of the different maps are identified, including their suitability for different types of studies. No carbon map was found suitable for studies concerned with existing land use/cover (LULC) and LUC outside of existing forests, partly because they do not represent the current LULC sufficiently well, and partly because they generally overestimate carbon values for agricultural land. A new map of aboveground carbon is presented, which was created based on data from existing maps and an up‐to‐date LULC map. This new map reflects current LULC, has high accuracy and resolution (50 m), and a national coverage. It can be a useful alternative for scientific studies and policy initiatives concerned with existing LULC and LUC outside of existing forests, especially at local scales when high resolution is necessary, and/or outside the Amazon biome. We identify five ongoing climate policy initiatives in Brazil that can benefit from using this map.

Palavras chave:
Brazil; carbon map; GIS; aboveground biomass; land use policy

Link:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/geo2.45

Notice: Undefined variable: COAUTOR in /var/www/html/cepagri/app/view/sobre-publicacoes.php on line 99
Artigo de Pesquisa | Acesso aberto | 30 Amazon Forest Ecosystem Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Alterations in Nutrient Availability: Filling the Gaps with Model-Experiment Integration

David Montenegro Lapola

Ano de publicação: 2016

Resumo:
The impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and alterations in nutrient availability on the carbon (C) storage capacity and resilience of the Amazon forest remain highly uncertain. Carbon dynamics are controlled by multiple eco-physiological processes responding to environmental change, but we lack solid experimental evidence, hampering theory development and thus representation in ecosystem models. Here, we present two ecosystem-scale manipulation experiments, to be carried out in the Amazon, that examine tropical ecosystem responses to eCO2 and alterations in nutrient availability and thus will elucidate the representation of crucial ecological processes by ecosystem models. We highlight current gaps in our understanding of tropical ecosystem responses to projected global changes in light of the eco-physiological assumptions considered by current ecosystem models. We conclude that a more detailed process-based representation of the spatial (e.g., soil type; plant functional type) and temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability of tropical forests is needed to enhance model predictions of ecosystem responses to projected global environmental change.

Palavras chave:
Amazon, carbon allocation, elevated CO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE), nutrient addition, tropical forest

Link:
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2016.00019/full

Notice: Undefined variable: COAUTOR in /var/www/html/cepagri/app/view/sobre-publicacoes.php on line 99
Artigo de Pesquisa | Acesso aberto | 7 Model–data synthesis for the next generation of forest free‐air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment

David Montenegro Lapola

Ano de publicação: 2016

Resumo:
The first generation of forest free‐air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR‐FACE in a 150‐yr‐old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model–data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross‐site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity.

Palavras chave:
biodiversity; climate; elevated CO2;  forest; free‐air CO2 enrichment(FACE); model–data synthesis; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P)

Link:
https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.13593

Notice: Undefined variable: COAUTOR in /var/www/html/cepagri/app/view/sobre-publicacoes.php on line 99
Artigo de Pesquisa | Acesso aberto | 15 Operationalizing payments for ecosystem services in Brazil

David Montenegro Lapola

Ano de publicação: 2016

Resumo:
In this paper the initial draft design of a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme in a municipality within the sugarcane belt of São Paulo state, Brazil (PES-RC), is compared with prevailing characteristics of successful PES cases in Latin America (PES-LA). This systematic comparison is performed by analyzing four major characteristics of PES: identity of traded ecosystem service (ES); spatial scale; type of transaction involved between ES providers and beneficiaries; and the involved actors. Information on the biophysical characteristics, institutional arrangement and financial options of PES-RC were assessed using participatory methods. We found that on the one hand there is an agreement between our case study and the prevailing successful cases of PES-LA regarding the traded ES (water) and the PES spatial scale (local). However, stakeholder opinions diverge from the success cases when it comes to the type of transaction (cash preferred in PES-RC; in-kind in successful PES-LA) and the involved actors. Our results raise the question whether stakeholder opinions or the characteristics of successful (or failure) cases should be prioritized when planning and operationalizing new PES schemes. We argue that stakeholder participation should be considered as an additional success criterion for the construction of public policies directed towards PES implementation.

Palavras chave:
Atlantic ForestBrazilian Forest CodeNature conservationPublic policiesRio Claro - SP municipalityParticipatory methods

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041616301176?via%3Dihub

Notice: Undefined variable: COAUTOR in /var/www/html/cepagri/app/view/sobre-publicacoes.php on line 99
Artigo de Pesquisa | Acesso aberto | 21 Socio-climatic hotspots in Brazil: how do changes driven by the new set of IPCC climatic projections affect their relevance for policy?

David Montenegro Lapola

Ano de publicação: 2016

Resumo:
This paper updates the SCVI (Socio-Climatic Vulnerability Index) maps developed by Torres et al. (2012) for Brazil, by using the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projections and more recent 2010 social indicators data. The updated maps differ significantly from their earlier versions in two main ways. First, they show that heavily populated metropolitan areas – namely Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, Manaus, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo – and a large swath of land across the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Bahia now have the highest SCVI values, that is, their populations are the most vulnerable to climate change in the country. Second, SCVI values for Northeast Brazil are considerably lower compared to the previous index version. An analysis of the causes of such difference reveals that changes in climate projections between CMIP3 and CMIP5 are responsible for most of the change between the different SCVI values and spatial distribution, while changes in social indicators have less influence, despite recent countrywide improvements in social indicators as a result of aggressive anti-poverty programs. These results raise the hypothesis that social reform alone may not be enough to decrease people’s vulnerability to future climatic changes. Whereas the coarse spatial resolution and relatively simplistic formulation of the SCVI may limit how useful these maps are at informing decision-making at the local level, they can provide a valuable input for large-scale policies on climate change adaptation such as those of the Brazilian National Policy on Climate Change Adaptation.

Palavras chave:
Adaptive Capacity Social Indicator Climate Change Adaptation Climate Projection Social Vulnerability 

Link:
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1635-z

Voltar

Acesso Rápido

Localização e Contato

CEPAGRI
Centro de Pesquisas Meteorológicas e Climáticas Aplicadas à Agricultura

Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz"
Campinas/SP
13083-970
(19)3521-2462


Redes sociais

Contate o Portal do Cepagri